Shiraz, an ancient city in south-western Iran and capital of Fars Province,
located in the Zagros Mountains, is a commercial centre of the surrounding
region, which produces grapes, citrus fruit, cotton, and rice. It is known as
the city of poetry, wine, roses, and also considered by many Iranians to be the
City of Love due to the many gardens and fruit-trees that can be seen in the
city. Shiraz is most likely more than 4000 years old. The earliest reference to
the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC, found in June of 1970,
while digging to make a kiln for a brick making factory in SW corner of the
city. The tablets written in ancient Elamite, name a city called "Tiraziš"
[Ref: George G Cameron (1948); "Persepolis Treasury Tablets", University
of Chicago Press, pp 115]. The name Shiraz also appears on clay sealings found
at Qasr e Abu-Nasr, a Sassanid ruin, east of the city (2nd century AD). As early
as the 11th century several hundred thousand people inhabited Shiraz. It had an estimated population of 1,255,955 in
2005. Incidentally the oldest sample of wine in the world dating to
approximately 7000 years ago was also discovered on clay jars recovered outside
of Shiraz. The city is also famous for its people hospitality.
320. Karim Khan's Citadel was built in 1766-7 AD by the order of
Karim Khan Zand, ruler and de facto Shah of Iran (1760-1779 AD)
in the middle of the city of Shiraz. To know more about Karim Khan,
please refer to the caption of fig 228 in the
The citadel consists of four high walls
connected by four round towers on the corners. The walls
are 3 metres
thick at the base and 2.8 metres at the top. The four
towers are 15 metres high and made of bricks. The
design of the citadel combines military and residential
architecture as it was the residence of Karim Khan and the military centre of the dynasty.
At the moment, Karim Khan's Citadel is supervised as a museum by
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization.
321. Entrance of Karim Khan's Citadel with a facade representing
an ancient Iranian epic tale about the battle between Rostam, the
greatest Persian mythical hero, and Div e Sepid (White Demon),
the chieftain of all demons and evil spirits.
322. Iranian version of the Leaning Tower of Pisa!
323. An outside panorama of Karim Khan's Citadel
324. Tourists visiting rooms inside the citadel
325. Very beautiful wooden windows of the rooms inside the citadel
326 to 328. Wooden masterpiece windows of the rooms inside Karim Khan's
329 to 332.
333 & 334.
353 & 354.
357. Another outside shot of Karim Khan's Citadel
358. Karim Khan's
Pavilion which is now the Museum of Pars